Monday, April 25, 2016

Happy Birthday Vattel: Natural Born Citizen Is 
One Born On U.S. Soil To Two U.S. Citizen Parents 

. . . .

"natural born Citizen" activist, Tristan Manos -- seeking to educate, promote, and restore the rightful (original Natural Law) understanding of the meaning of U.S. Constitution Article 2 Section 1 Clause 5 "natural born Citizen" -- on today's birthday of Emer de Vattel (April 25, 1714):

"Today is a good opportunity to reflect upon 1 of the all-time great political philosophers and jurists (expert in or writer on law), Emer de Vattel, author of "Law of Nations; or, Principles of Law of Nature, applied to Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns," a world-class citizen/government/nation resource and guide that served the Founding Fathers of the American Revolution and the Framers at the Constitutional Convention, that should be serving us -- "We The People" -- today, that we may "Keep The Republic," for our generation and future generations."

Vattel, born in Switzerland, wrote "Law of Nations" at the age of 44. His book is seen as "unrivaled among treatises in its influence on American Founders" ("Law of Nations as Constitutional Law," International Human Rights Colloquium).

For just a short sampling, some examples of Vattel's highly impressive popularity:

Benjamin Franklin's letter to Charles Dumas, expressing thanks for Vattel's "Law of Nations":

Franklin chaired Committee of Correspondence (secret governments organized by Patriot leaders of 13 Colonies on eve of American Revolution), Dumas served as secret agent to aid American interests in Europe. In 1775, Dumas devised 1st diplomatic cipher used by Continental Congress and Franklin for secret correspondence with agents in Europe.

Franklin to Dumas (12/9/1775) (authorized by John Dickinson and John Jay):

"I am much obliged by the kind present you made us of your edition of Vattel. It came to us in good season, when the circumstances of a rising state make it necessary frequently to consult the law of nations. Accordingly that copy, which I kept, (after depositing one in our own public library here, and sending the other to Massachusetts, as you directed,) has been continually in the hands of the members of our Congress, now sitting, who are much pleased with your notes and preface, and have entertained a high and just esteem for their author."

Benjamin Franklin biographer James Parton:

Vattel’s Law of Nations was thereafter “pounced upon by studious members of Congress, groping their way without the light of precedents.”

Years later, Albert de Lapradelle wrote an introduction to the 1916 edition of Law of Nations, saying the Fathers of Independence “were in accord with the ideas of Vattel”; they found in Vattel “all their maxims of political liberty.”

"From 1776 to 1783, the more the United States progressed, the greater became Vattel’s influence. In 1780, his Law of Nations was a classic, a textbook in the universities.”

"Another copy presented by Franklin to Library Company (Philadelphia). Among Directors' records is the following minute: “Oct. 10, 1775. Monsieur Dumas having presented the Library with a very late edition of Vattel’s Law of Nature and Nations (in French), the Board direct the secretary to return that gentle-man their thanks. This copy undoubtedly was used by the members of the 2nd Continental Congress, which sat in Philadelphia; by the leading men who directed the policy of the United Colonies until the end of the war; and, later, by the men who sat in the Convention of 1787 and drew up the Constitution of the United States, for the library was located in Carpenters’ Hall, where the 1st Congress deliberated, and within a stone’s throw of the Colonial State House of Pennsylvania, where the 2nd Congress met, and likewise near where the Constitution was framed."

A wide-ranging multitude of historical references citing "natural born Citizen," as presented in Vattel's "Law of Nations," is available on the Internet, from the likes of those cited above, to others, such as the famous letter from John Jay to George Washington, multiple U.S. Supreme Court rulings (such as Minor vs. Happersett, 1875), and other historical references.

David Werner Amram, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Volume 67 (1919):

"Charles Fenwick, in his notable articles on Vattel in the American Political Science volume 7 page 305 volume 8 page 375 Vattel's treatise of The Nations is quoted by judicial tribunals in speeches before legislative and in the decrees and correspondence of executive officials. It is the manual of the students, the reference work of the statesman, and the text from which the political philosopher draws inspiration. Publicists consider it sufficient to cite the authority of Vattel to justify and give conclusiveness and force to statements as to the proper conduct of a state in its international relations. Mr Fenwick, however, considers that Vattel is no longer authoritative, saying that "the practical rules which represent the application abstract principle to the intercourse of states have changed," and that, therefore, Vattel has little value in our day for the practical lawyer and statesman. The changes which Mr Fenwick points out have taken place in great fields as the right of expatriation, the status of aliens, the internationalization of great rivers, the security of foreign investments, and especially the laws of war and neutrality. But it cannot be denied, as is pointed Mr Phillipson in his article on Vattel in Great Jurists of the World in the Continental Legal History Series, that he produced a work of first magnitude through which he modernized the whole business and theory of international law and translated the philosophy and theories of greater men than himself into the domain of practical international politics. In England, it is true, Vattel was severely criticised, especially by Jeremy Bentham, and likewise in France and in Russia; as against this, however, in the United States, since before the Revolution, when his work met with the approval of (Benjamin) Franklin, down to most recent times, he has been constantly quoted with approval."

Vattel's "Law of Nations" on "natural born Citizen" (Book 1, Chapter 19, Section 212):

“The citizens are the members of the civil society; bound to this society by certain duties, and subject to its authority, they equally participate in its advantages. The natives, or natural-born citizens, are those born in the country, of parents who are citizens. As the society cannot exist and perpetuate itself otherwise than by the children of the citizens, those children naturally follow the condition of their fathers, and succeed to all their rights. The society is supposed to desire this, in consequence of what it owes to its own preservation; and it is presumed, as matter of course, that each citizen, on entering into society, reserves to his children the right of becoming members of it. The country of the fathers is therefore that of the children; and these become true citizens merely by their tacit consent. We shall soon see whether, on their coming to the years of discretion, they may renounce their right, and what they owe to the society in which they were born. I say, that, in order to be of the country, it is necessary that a person be born of a father who is a citizen; for, if he is born there of a foreigner, it will be only the place of his birth, and not his country.”
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